Future trajectories of food prices, food security, and cropland expansion are closely linked to future average crop yields in the major agricultural regions of the world. Because the maximum possible yields achieved in farmers' fields might level off or even decline in many regions over the next few decades, reducing the gap between average and potential yields is critical. In most major irrigated wheat, rice, and maize systems, yields appear to be at or near 80% of yield potential, with no evidence for yields having exceeded this threshold to date. A
The integration of the agricultural and energy sectors caused by rapid growth in the biofuels market signals a new era in food policy and sustainable development. For the first time in decades, agricultural commodity markets could experience a sustained increase in prices, breaking the long-term price decline that has benefited food consumers worldwide. Whether this transition occurs, and how it will affect global hunger and poverty, remain to be seen. Will food markets begin to track the volatile energy market in terms of price and availability?
A concept note about setting up an international program for studying the effects of the emergence of biofuels on global poverty and food security.
Access to an adequate energy supply at reasonable cost is crucial for sustained economic growth. Unfortunately, oil prices and the need to import from politically unstable countries lowers the reliability of the US energy supply and hinders economic development. Although biofuels have been identified as an important component of the national strategy to decrease US dependence on foreign oil, the ability to sustain a rapid expansion of biofuel production capacity raises new research and policy issues.
A new maize (Zea mays L.) simulation model, Hybrid-Maize, was developed by combining the strengths of two modeling approaches: the growth and development functions in maize-specific models represented by CERES-Maize, and the mechanistic formulation of photosynthesis and respiration in generic crop models such as INTERCOM and WOFOST. It features temperature-driven maize phenological development, vertical canopy integration of photosynthesis, organ-specific growth respiration, and temperature-sensitive maintenance respiration.
This book includes keynote invited papers from the Third International Crop Science Congress held in Hamburg, Germany, in August 2000. All papers have been prepared within strict editorial guidelines to ensure that the work is a balanced review text that provides an overview of the major issues confronting crop science today and in the future. It represents a suitable advanced textbook for students, as well as offering research workers concise overviews of topics adjacent to their areas of research.
The effects of soil aeration, N fertilizer, and crop residue management on crop performance, soil N supply, organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content were evaluated in two annual double-crop systems for a 2-year period (1994- 1995). In the maize-rice (M-R) rotation, maize (Zea mays, L.) was grown in aerated soil in the dry season (DS) followed by rice (Oriza sativa, L.) grown in flooded soil in the wet season (WS). In the continuous rice system (R-R), rice was grown in flooded soil in both the DS and WS.