We select a 30-day delay in monsoon onset as a threshold beyond which significant impact on the country's rice economy is likely to occur.
With continued human pressure on marine fisheries and ocean resources,
aquaculture has become one of the most promising avenues for increasing
marine fish production in the future. This review presents recent trends and future
prospects for the aquaculture industry, with particular attention paid to ocean farming
and carnivorous finfish species. The benefits of farming carnivorous fish have been
challenged; extensive research on salmon has shown that farming such fish can have
El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events exert significant influence on Southeast Asian rice output and markets. This paper measures ENSO effects on Indonesia's national and regional rice production and on world rice prices, using the August Niño 3.4 sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) to gauge climate variability. It shows that each degree Celsius change in the August SSTA produces a 1,318,000 metric ton effect on output and a $21/metric ton change in the world price for lower quality rice.