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    Rosamond Naylor
    Springer, in "Principles of Natural Resource Stewardship: Resilience-Based Management in a Changing World", Chapin, Kofinas, Folke (eds), 2009
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    Journal Article

    Zhiying Xu, Bill Burke, Thomas S. Jayne, Jones Govereh
    Agricultural Economics, 2009

    Abstract: Many governments in developing countries distribute fertilizer at subsidized prices in an effort to stimulate small farmers' agricultural productivity and food security. Prior fertilizer demand studies have largely failed to account for the effects of government programs on farmers' commercial purchases. Using a double hurdle model and nationally representative rural household panel data in Zambia, we distinguish between these sources and measure the contemporaneous “crowding in” and “crowding out” effects of government input programs on commercial fertilizer sales.

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